Development and Reform Commission: the selection of the second airport of the capital will consider the interests of all parties

The growing passenger flow and the future pressure of the Beijing Olympic Games have enabled the construction schedule of the “Capital Second Airport” to be released quickly; after the unofficial three site selection schemes broke out, some scholars believe that the location of the “Second Airport” It should also consider using the "airport economy" to solve the old problem of "the poverty belt around the Beijing-Tianjin region."

The National Development and Reform Commission said: "The location of the second airport of the capital will consider the interests of all parties."

The news that Beijing will build the second airport of the capital is not news, but where the second airport will be built is now a hot topic of debate.

On October 8, the Beijing Municipal Development and Reform Commission disclosed the "Beijing's "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" Infrastructure Development Plan", indicating that the construction of the Beijing Second Airport will be started and will start before 2010. The National Development and Reform Commission also issued a special document to clarify that in order to meet the aviation needs of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region after 2015, the market positioning of the Capital Second Airport should be a large international airport, meeting the requirements of “24-hour operation”.

The news from the Civil Aviation Administration of China further confirmed that the construction schedule of the Capital Second International Airport has been confirmed, but the current site selection has not yet been determined.

“The location of the Capital Second Airport involves all aspects of interests. The NDRC will consider the economic development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, and is currently preparing to actively promote the site selection of the Capital Second Airport. In the future, the Capital Second Airport Construction Project Leading Group will be established. Comprehensively balance the interests of all parties." The National Development and Reform Commission Transportation Department told the "China Economic Weekly" that the Capital Second Airport will be positioned to promote the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regional economy and become an international and domestic air transportation hub system.

It is reported that the long-term planning target of the Capital Second Airport is to have an annual passenger throughput of 80 million to 100 million passengers and an annual cargo throughput of 5 million tons. Authorities believe that the new airport is bound to join hands with the existing airports in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei to build a regional airport group with complementary functions and coordination, thus becoming a strong engine for regional economic integration.

Airport Economy Becomes New Hope of "Poverty in Beijing-Tianjin Poverty Belt"

The industry's proposal to build a second airport in the capital began in 2002. In September 1999, the large-scale expansion of the Capital Airport was completed, but in just two years, the annual passenger throughput of the Capital Airport has soared from 24.17 million in 2001 to 27.16 million, which is close to the design traffic in 2005. The ground facilities and airspace capacity are all saturated, and the Capital Airport is overcrowded.

At the same time, the approaching 2008 Beijing Olympics will again put pressure on the Capital Airport. According to forecasts, the passenger throughput of the Beijing Olympic Games will surge to 5.56 million passengers, equivalent to the peak of 2012, with an annual passenger throughput of 53.8 million, which is seriously exceeding the existing capacity of the Capital Airport.

If you build a second airport in the capital, the above concerns will be solved. In addition, the intriguing aspect of the “Second Airport” is the regional driving effect of the “Airport Economy”.

From international experience analysis, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington City have nearly 30 airports, creating 70% of the manufacturing value of the US manufacturing industry, and the urbanization level has reached more than 90%, becoming the world's largest financial center; the US Great Lakes urban agglomeration, It has nearly 20 airports and has gathered the US steel industry and automobile industry, of which automobile production and sales account for 80% of the US. Relying on the airport, these areas have adapted to the ever-changing market changes with the efficient and fast air transportation system, and quickly formed an industrial cluster with complete industrial chain, complete service functions, high efficiency and high output value, and the industrial cluster further promoted the city. The economic ties and overall development of the members of the group.

Building an airport can prosper a party's economy, and the local economy is looking forward to the "fishing gantry."

“In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the duality of economic and social development is very strong, and the polarization is particularly serious. There is a very poor belt in the surrounding area of ​​Beijing and Tianjin, called “the poverty belt around the Beijing-Tianjin region.” Professor of Peking University Yang Kaizhong told China Economic Weekly.

According to China Economic Weekly, the concept of “the poverty belt around the Beijing-Tianjin region” first appeared on August 17, 2005. It was the economic development strategy of Hebei Province, which was co-operated by the Asian Development Bank economist Peng Longyun and the Hebei Provincial Government. "Proposed. The “Beijing-Tianjin Poverty Belt” defined in the research report includes 32 national and provincial poverty alleviation key counties in the northern part of the country, including 21 poverty-stricken counties in the north of Beijing and Tianjin. There are 11 poverty-stricken counties with a total area of ​​83,000 square kilometers, involving more than 2.7 million people living in poverty. Their per capita annual income is less than 625 yuan.

Among them, the per capita GDP and the county-level local fiscal revenue of the 24 counties in the poverty-stricken area of ​​Beijing and Tianjin in Hebei Province are only 1/4 and 1/10 of the suburban counties of Beijing and Tianjin. The report concludes that the region is one of the most severely affected areas in the eastern coastal areas of China, and is at the same level of development as the most impoverished Sanxi area in the western region (Dingxi, Longxi, Xihaigu), and some indicators are even higher than The Sanxi area is even lower.

“It’s hard to imagine that around Beijing and Tianjin, there are 3,798 poor villages, 32 poverty-stricken counties, and the 2.26 million poor people’s “Beijing-Tianjin poverty belt”, which still exists in areas less than 100 kilometers from the capital. The phenomenon of a large area of ​​impoverished areas is extremely rare in the world. Moreover, the poverty level of the people there is very serious and the number is very large.” Professor Yang Kaizhong said with deep feelings.

As the saying goes, "There is a good cold under the big tree." However, the actual situation is that these poverty zones under the "big tree" are not "long grass."

"From the perspective of regional economy, if the second airport of the capital can be built in these poverty-stricken areas, it will have a strong driving effect on the development of the surrounding areas. Let the 'big trees not grow grass' and quickly transform into 'big trees' It’s good to take a cool look.” Sun Jiuwen, a professor at the Institute of Regional Economics and Urban Management at Renmin University of China, told China Economic Weekly.

Three folk voices fighting for "falling points"

The specific location of the Capital Airport’s “landing” is still unknown.

"At present, the location of the second airport in the capital has not really been put on the agenda. Because the location involves all aspects of interests, we will absorb opinions from all sides. The final plan also needs the State Council, including the National Military Commission and other departments to decide." According to the National Development and Reform Commission Relevant persons from the Department of Transportation and Transportation introduced to China Economic Weekly that the function of the Capital Second Airport must first satisfy the economic development of the entire region of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. But in the end, choose where in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and coordinate and balance the interests of all parties.

According to the analysis of the topography of Beijing, the airport site is most likely to settle in the southeast of Beijing. Because the northern and western parts of Beijing are mountainous areas, it is not advisable to build an airport. In the southern and eastern suburbs, there are military airports. First, military needs and national security should be guaranteed. Therefore, it is very likely that the options will be locked in the southeastern Tianjin and Hebei regions.

In the unofficial field, the candidate for the "Second Airport" with the highest public opinion is: Langfang, Hebei, selected by Professor Wu Qing and Dr. Yang Kaizhong, elected by Dr. Wu Liangzhu, and Hebei Langfang, selected by Dr. Hu Strategic.

“The entire Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region needs a regional aviation hub to serve the Greater Capital Region. I think that in the lines from Beijing to Tianjin, whether it is from regional development or security considerations, the construction of the Capital Second Airport is relatively simple. Well, Professor Wu Liangxuan, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the School of Architecture of Tsinghua University, said in an interview with China Economic Weekly that only a few areas are available for military and security considerations, and Wuqing is one of them. s Choice.

Professor Yang Kaizhong, executive vice president of the Capital Development Institute of Peking University, expressed his opinion to China Economic Weekly: "Wu Lao's plan has certain reference, but I think (the second capital airport) is best placed The area north of Ganzhou is beneficial to the coordinated development of the entire Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to the balanced development of Beijing's cities, including the development of Beijing's Nancheng."

“I suggest that the Capital Second Airport will be located in Caojiawu and Old State in Langfang City,” said Dr. Hu Strategy of China Postdoctoral Research Institute. The Langfang has good geographical conditions and geographical advantages. Good compatibility with the surrounding area.

Professor Sun Jiuwen from the Institute of Regional Economics and Urban Management of Renmin University of China believes that the construction of the second airport of the capital cannot be too close to the city belt. “I have been to Langfang several times and found that the natural environment of Langfang is a bit problematic, almost foggy every day. The construction of the Capital Second Airport is to focus on the development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei after 2010, so the vision will be longer and the urban factor will be taken into consideration. The current second airport positioning can follow Shanghai's Pudong Airport and Hongqiao. The division of the airport, one airport is more inclined to international flights, the other airport is more domestic flights. Tianjin Binhai Airport has more freight, which can be inclined to freight, the new capital of the second airport if it is between Beijing and Tianjin, this airport It would be better to be an international airport. The division of labor between the three airports is clearer."

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Wuqing, Langfang, Zhangzhou, where should the second airport be located?

Wu Liangzhu, Yang Kaizhong, Hu strategic three people fight again

Moderator: "China Economic Weekly" reporter Wang Hongru

Guest:

Wu Liangwei, Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering, Professor of School of Architecture, Tsinghua University

Yang Kaizhong, Executive Vice President, Capital Development Institute, Peking University

Hu Strategy China Postdoctoral Researcher

Moderators: Tianjin Wuqing, Hebei Langfang, Hebei Luzhou, three site selection programs have caused widespread debates in public opinion. As the proponent of the plan, what is the reason for you to choose the “Capital Second Airport”?

Wu Liangzhu: The location of the airport is a very complicated and professional issue. It is necessary to consider many factors in the sky, the ground and the underground. From the perspective of urban development strategy, I have been working hard to promote the location of the second airport on the Beijing-Tianjin Corridor. At present, the most mature is the Tianjin Wuqing Taizi Affairs Site. Building a large aviation hub in this area will not only solve the problem of aviation capacity. On the ground, the airport will also bring opportunities for related industries and urban growth, forming a large aviation city, which will help to ease the center of Beijing and Tianjin. Urban pressure in the district. In the future, this place can be centered on the Capital Second Airport. The nearby Langfang City, Tianjin Wuqing, and Beijing Yongle will be unified to form a modern aviation city centered on the Capital Second Airport. According to their own development conditions and the relationship with the airport, the three regions should select appropriate industry types to communicate and coordinate in processing and manufacturing, high-tech research and development, conference and exhibition, logistics, commerce, service, and modern agriculture. A win-win situation.

The Beijing-Tianjin Corridor is the core of social and economic development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. It is the most densely populated and economically active region in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. It should be the best choice for the second airport in the capital to obtain passenger traffic. Considering the current situation of airport distribution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, topography, meteorological conditions, airspace conditions, ground transportation conditions, and the willingness to develop in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, only the Beijing-Tianjin and Langfang cities are nearby. The site has the conditions of a large hub airport.

Yang Kaizhong: The purpose of building the second airport of the capital is mainly to divert, and it is aimed at the pressure of the capital airport, so it cannot be too far from Beijing. Find a place between Beijing and Baoding to get to Beijing by an hour. For example, near Baozhou in Baoding, from the perspective of regional economic development, it can drive the economic development of the poverty belt around Beijing and Tianjin, and also ensure the needs of Beijing. There is no contradiction with the future development of Tianjin.

What changes will happen in the future situation are not what we can expect now. The construction of the Capital Second Airport is a strategic decision. It cannot simply be obeyed by a certain factor. It should be considered from the perspective of the overall situation, the entire economic and social development, and regional coordinated development.

Hu Strategy: I suggest that the location of the Capital Second Airport is in Caojiawu and Jiuzhou in Langfang City. Langfang is located in the North China Plain. It has a flat terrain with no mountains and insurmountable obstacles. It is relatively moderate from the surrounding airports and will not conflict with the surrounding airport airspace and routes. There are no restricted areas or dangerous areas in the area. There is no future construction. Arrange the above-mentioned regional plans without considering the need to reduce the airport capacity due to special settings; there are no large cities and large residential areas around the selected sites and ground facilities that must adopt noise restriction procedures; there are no soot discharge mines and facilities around the airport airspace; One area is located in China's air traffic hub, which is the end point and starting point of the main international and domestic routes. For example, the aircraft joining and departing from Beijing-Guangzhou, Beijing-Shanghai and other routes are extremely smooth, and there is no need to make large-scale structure and direction. Adjustments and changes. Therefore, from the perspective of rationally setting the airspace, the choice of Capital Second International Airport is ideal in Langfang.

The construction of Capital Second International Airport in Langfang also has location advantages, geographical advantages and environmental advantages. Langfang is 40 kilometers away from Beijing and the traffic is very convenient. At the same time, since the Beijing Third Ring Road to the Fifth Ring Road are close to the current two sites, this naturally forms a fast track connecting with the Capital Airport, which is also very reasonable in the airport layout and access. In terms of environment, Langfang is moderately located and has good integration with the surrounding areas.

Moderator: How will the Capital Second Airport, which is scheduled to be completed in 2015, be functionally positioned? How to rationally divide and coordinate the development of the three airports in the Beijing-Tianjin region? How many airports do you need to build in the future in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region?

Yang Kaizhong: The markets facing the three major airports are different. Beijing Airport is mainly for Beijing and its surrounding areas, and Tianjin Airport is mainly for Tianjin and its surrounding areas. By 2010, Beijing’s population will reach 80 million. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will eventually develop into a world-class metropolitan area. At least four airports: Capital Airport, Capital Second Airport, Tianjin Binhai Airport, and Tianjin Airport are saturated in Tianjin. An airport was built between Tangshan. Japan’s Greater Tokyo has a population of more than 30 million, but there are at least two large airports – Narita and Haneda. With so many people in our region, there must be two to three, or even three to four, of the demand for large airports in the future.

Hu Strategy: There are two international airports in the capital of developed countries in the world. For example, there are two international airports in Narita and Haneda in Tokyo, Japan. China is a big developing country. With the success of Beijing's bid for the Olympics, it is more important to accelerate the development of the capital economy. It is necessary to build the second international airport as soon as possible. It is necessary to learn the lessons of design traffic volume two years after the completion of the renovation of the Capital Airport: In November 1999, the new terminal building of the Capital International Airport was put into use, although the area was three times that of the old one, and the annual passenger throughput was 1800. More than 10,000 people have been expanded to 27 million times. This time is positioned in 2005, but it appears to be lagging after two years of use. In the future, with the development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the possibility of building a new airport will not be ruled out.

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